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Samp le S i ze a nd Nu mber. Sa mpl e siz e for assoc iation mapping remai ns relatively. In ma ny recent associat ion mapp ing st udies , only. Ou r preli mi na r y si mula-. SSR s. O f course , lengt h of t he. Soft war e. In add ition to ass o-. V ekemans, 2 Seque nci ng and Genot yping. SOLiD Shendure et a l. HeliScope Bra slavsky e t a l. Use of these a nd fo r t h-.

A lready ,. Recently , t wo new strateg ies were devel oped to. T able 2. Common statistical soft ware packages for as sociation mapping. Soft ware pack age Focus Website Comment. SAS Generic htt p: R Generic ht tp: In th is approach, selector tech nol og y is used to. In t his. Ser v ice, 2 00 6. When, not if, such a mon umenta l tech ni-. Genome S can s and Ca nd i date Gen es. Ass ociation stud ies w ith h ig h density SN P cove ra ge,. T o date,. As genomic. So fa r , t here have. But f or many resea rch groups, sta r t ing. Anot her reason for the pro mi sing but sti l l li mited.

Obv iously , ma ny ca ndi-. W e do not have a strong. Even if t he loss-of- fu nct ion a llele resu lts i n a sig-. M oreov er ,. A skewed. Nes ted Ass oci ati on Mapp ing. U lti mately , it is desi rable to hav e bot h ca nd idate-gene and. Joint lin k age a nd li nk age d is-. Nested a ss ocia-. In essence, by i ntegrati ng genetic desig n, natu ra l. As we gai n a bet ter ha ndle on gen et ic. Ass ociat ion mapp ing w it h ped ig ree-ba sed germplasm. As soci ation map-. In a recent ca ndidate-gene associat ion mapp ing st udy , lyco-.

Findi ngs f rom thes e gene- o r geno mic reg ion -ta rgeted. Fo r pa ren ta l selec t ion, mi xed model is.

Ber nardo, 20 With in se gregat ing breed ing p opulat ions. Johnson, 20 04 and geno me- w ide select ion GS Ber nardo. In su m mar y , as sociat ion mapp ing plat forms a re being. Empiric a l stud ies. Genet ic diversit y a nd ph enoty ping a re exp ecte d to gai n. Even tua lly , we wi l l move to wa rd.

Ackn owl ed gme nts. W e ack n owled ge. Ka ns a s State Un iversit y J Y. Abe ca si s, G. Cook son. A gener a l te st of. Gen et. Ch erny, W. Cook s on, a nd L. C a rdon. Ge net. Ei ze nga , and W. Ass oc iat ion mappi ng of. Bree d. Mol la , D. Mu zny , L. Whe eler, X. Song , T.

R ich mond, C. M idd le, M. Rode sch , C. Pac ka rd ,. Gibb s. Di rec t se lec t ion of huma n. T ra ns mi ssion- d is equ i li briu m te st s for qua nt itat i ve. A nders en, J. Melch in ger, I. G enet. Zh ao, E. Ba k ker, M.

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Hort on, K. Ja kob, C. Li ster, J. Molitor, C. S hi ndo, C. Traw , H. Zh eng , J. Ber gels on, C. Nordb org. PLo S. Gen et 1: Ar bel bide, M. Ber na rdo. Power of mi xed-mod el QT L. Ard l ie, K. S eiel st ad. Bao, J. C orke, a nd M. Mic ros atel l ites , si ng le nucleot ide. Em r ich, H. Chen, L. Li, a nd P. Sch na ble. SNP d i scove r y v ia 45 4 t ra ns cr iptome se quenc ing. Pla nt J. Belo, A. Z hen g, S. Luck , B. Sh en, D. Meyer, B. Li, S. Ti ngey, and A. Gene t. Ber na rdo, R.

Bree di ng for Q ua nt itat ive Tra its i n Pla nt s. St em ma. Pre ss , W ood bur y, MN. Pa rent a l sele ct ion , numb er of bree di ng p opu lat ions ,. Cha rc oss et. Usef u l ne ss of gene i nfor mat ion i n. A si mul ati on appra is a l. Cr op. P rosp ec ts for ge nomew ide s elec t ion for. C rop Sc i. Bin la den, J. Bol lb ack , C. B end i xen, R. Niel sen , and. Wi l lers lev. Blot t, S. Moi sio, A. Sch m idt-Kuntz el , A. C orne t, P.

(PDF) Identification of Cultured and Natural Astragalus Root Based on Monosaccharide Mapping

Ber zi, N. Ca mbi sa no, C. Ford, B. John son, L. Simon , R. Snel l, R. W ong, J. Far n ir, and W. Coppie ters. A phenyl a la n ine -to-t y r osi ne sub st it ution i n t he t r an smembr a ne. Ge net ics Bold ma n, K. Kr ie se, L. Kach ma n. Bore v itz , J. E cker. Pl ant genom ic s: A nnu.

Genom ics Hu m. Lia ng , D. Cha n g, T. Zhu, D. W eigel, C. Ber r y, E. Chor y. Genome R es. Brad bur y , P. Zh an g, D. K ro on, T. Ca ss teve ns, Y. Ra mdos s, a nd. Buck ler. Bioin for mat ics Bra slav sk y, I. Heb er t, E. Qu a ke. S equenc e. P roc. Nat l. Ac ad.

USA Bres eg hel lo, F. Sor rel ls. A ss oci ation m appi ng of ker nel. Ca ldwe l l, K. E x tr eme. Ca mu s-Ku la nda i velu, L. Madur, V. Comb es , M. Fou r-. Dubreu i l, B. Goue sna rd , D. Ma nic acc i, a nd. C ha rcos se t. Ma i ze ad apt at ion to temp erat e cl im ate: Re la-. Dw a rf 8 gene. G ene tic s Pre ss oir a, P. Brown, S.

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M itche ll , W. Rooney, M. K re sov ich a. Com mu nit y. Chu rchi l l, G. A ngel , A. Att ie, J. Beav i s, J. Ble ich, M. Bog ue , K. Broma n, K. Buck, E. Bu ck ler, M. Bu rme ist er , E. Che sler, J. Che ver ud, S. Cl apcot e, M. C ook, R. C ox, J. Cra bbe , W. C ru sio, A. Desc heppe r , R. Doer ge,. Fa rber, J. Forejt , D. Gai le , S. G arlow, H.

Ge iger, H. Ger shen-. Gordon , J. Gu, W. Gu, G. Hayes , C. Hel ler, H. Hi m melb auer, R.

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Hunte r , H. Hsu , F. I raqi , B. Iva nd ic, H. Jacob, e t a l. Cl ark , R. S chwei ke r t, C. T o omajia n, S. Os sow sk i, G. Ze l ler, P. Sh in n, N. Hu, G. Hi nds , H. C hen,. Hus on, B. Schol kopf, M. Nordb org , G. R ats ch,. E cker, and D. W eigel. Com mon se quence p oly mor-. S cie nce. Co ga n, N. Dr ay ton, R. Ponti ng , A. Ba n na n,. S awbrid ge, K. Smit h, G. Spa ngenb erg , and J. For ster. Stenbe rg, S. Welch, M. Ni l sson ,.

Bick nel l, W. Bod mer, R. Mult ige ne. De vl in, B. Roede r. Genomic c ontrol for a ss oc iat ion st udie s. Biomet ric s Doe rge, R. Duc roc q, S. Madur, and A. Ch a rcos set. Ev id ence f rom a ss oci at ion map-. Eh ren reich, I. A c om-. Ge net ics 17 6: Ers oz , E. Buc k ler. Applic at ions of l in k a ge di sequ i l ib-. V arsh n ey. T ube ros a ed. Genom ic a ssi ste d crop i mproveme nt: Genom ic s approa ches a nd pl atfor ms. Spr inge r V erl ag , Ger ma ny. Es k rid ge, K. Avai l able at: Es toup, A. C ornue t. Homopla sy a nd mut ation. E col. Fa lus h, D.

Ste phens , a nd J. Pr itc ha rd. In ferenc e of popu l ation. Li n ked lo ci a nd cor re-. I nfe rence of p opu lat ion. Domi na nt ma rke rs a nd. Not es 7: Fl i nt-Ga rci a, S. Bu ck ler. Plant Biol. Fl i nt-Ga rc ia , S. P res soi r, S. Romero, S. Mit ch-. K res ov ich, M. M ai z e as so ciat ion po pul at ion: A h ig h-resolut ion pl atfor m for. Pl ant J. Gi lm our, A. Go gel, B. VS N Inter nat iona l L td. Hemps tea d, U K. E rso z, G.

Status and Prospects of Association Mapping in Plants

Brow n, N. W hee ler, and D. Nea le. W he eler, E. Nels on, a nd D. Wood proper t y. Gore , M. Brad bur y, R. Hoge rs, M. V er ste ge, J. Pelema n, E. Buc k ler, and M. Ev a luat ion of t ar get. Crop S ci. Su n, S. The components and classif ication indexes of the natural. Establishment and Validation of Monosaccharide Mapping. Figure 1 shows the total ion chromatogram of the acetylated products of 17 standard compounds of. The result shows that the standard equation of ribitol is lg m.

T able 1 also shows that the blank recoveries of. Monosaccharide Mapping in the Cytoplasm of RA. The soluble sugars of RA include monosaccharides, alditols, disaccharides, oligosaccharides,. T o obtain the different monosaccharide mapping fractions,. Po ly sac ch ar ide s an d g lyc oco nju ga te s we re sub seq uen tly. Th e acet yla ted prod uct s were extr acte d by CH. Figure 1. T ypical chromatograms of 17 kinds of acetylated m onosaccharide and alditol standards. T able 1.

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Retention T ime. Correction Factor. Mon osacc hari de map ping of Frac tio n A of RA F igu re 2 shows t ha t its c omp ositi on main ly i nclu des. The co nten ts of gluco se and fruc tos e are. In addition, the to tal content of Fraction A in. Figure 2.

Identification of Cultured and Natural Astragalus Root Based on Monosaccharide Mapping

Monosaccharide mapping of Fraction A in RA samples in dif ferent growth patterns. Ribitol R T: Fructose R T: Glucose R T: Inositol R T: Sorbitol R T: Galactitol R T: Mon osacc hari de map ping o f Fract ion B of R A Figur e 3 sh ows t hat its co mp osi tio n m ain ly inclu des. These results are. In addition, the contents of Fraction B in natural RA are also.

Figure 3. Monosaccharide mapping of Fraction B in RA sa mples in different growth patterns. Xylose R T: Fucose R T: Rhamnose R T: Arabinose R T: Galactose R T: Mannose R T: Data of the contents of s accharides of Fractions A and B were subjected to various m ultivariate data. W e first employed PCA to. Figu re 4A. P LS-DA to classify the sample. The model quali ties were assessed with the total explained variables R. All Q. Arabinose, glucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose of. Fra ction A, a nd glu cos e, f ructo se, sorb itol, gala ctos e an d inos itol of Fract ion B can be u sed to dis tin gui sh.

MG and MJ. Figure 4. Multivariate statistical analysis of monosaccharides of Fractions A and B in the. Table 2. Comparison of t -test of the differential contents of monosaccharides of Fractions. A and B in the cytoplasm of RA with different growth patterns. B unge var. Table 3. A and B in the cytoplasm of different species of RA. Bunge var. Not detected. V arieties. Therefore, the molar value of arabinose was set as 1; the molar ratio of glucose and mannose to arabinose. T he ratio of the am ount of mannose a nd glucose to arabinose ran ges from 0.

The ratio of the amount of mannose to arabin ose was more than 3. The ratio of the amount. Therefore, these ratios may be used to distinguish the growth patterns of R A. Table 4. Molar ratio of different m onosaccharides of Fractions A and B in the cytoplas m in.

V arietie s. Cultured RA. Polysaccharides of pectin Fraction C and he micellulose Fraction D can be extracted using. To obtain different fractions for. Hem icellulose was subsequently extracted by 1. Freeze-dried extracts were hydrolyzed. The acetylated products were extracted by CH. The content of arabinose is. Figure 5. Monosa ccharide mapping of Fraction C-1 of pectin in cell wall of RA samples.

Rhamnitol RT: Ribitol RT:. Fucit ol RT: Arabitol RT: Xylitol RT: Mannitol RT: Figure 6. Monosaccharide mapping of Fract ion C-2 of pectin in cell wall of RA samples in. Rhamn itol R T: Fucitol R T: Arabitol R T: Xylitol R T: The content of. Figure 7. Monosaccharide mapping of Fraction D-1 of hemicellulose in cell wall of RA. Rhamnitol R T: Fuc itol R T: Arab itol R T: Mannitol R T: Figure 8. Monosaccharide mapping of Fract ion D-2 of hemicellulose in cell wall of RA.

PLS - DA to classify the sample groups. Figure 9B. The high values of R. Ac cordi ng t o t he value of V IP Figur e 9 D , th e pr inc ipal compo nen ts to dis tin guish nat ural. RA and cultured RA are arabinose, xylose, fucose, m annose, and glucose of Fraction C, and fucose and.

The pri ncipal components to disti ngui sh MG and MJ are galactose and. Figure 9. The differential contents of monosaccharide of Fractions C and D in the cell wall of RA with different. T able 5 illustrates significant difference in the levels of contents of Fractions C and D in cell wall,. The co ntent. RA Figure 9D. Therefore, the molar value of arabinose of Fraction C was set as 1; the m olar ratios of. T he ratio range of the content of arabinose of Fraction D.

The ratio of the content of arabinose of Fraction D to that of Fraction. C is m ore than 0. The ratio of the content of arabinose of Fraction D. These ratios may also be used to. T able 5. Comparison of t -test of the differential contents of monosaccharide of Fractions C. T able 6. Comparison of t -test of the dif ferential contents of monosaccharides of Fractions C. The figure shows that natural. RA and cultured RA can be distinguished by multivariate statistical analysis of the monosaccharide. T able 7. Molar ratio of different monosaccharides of Fractions C and D in cell wall in natural and cultured RA samples.

Figure Dendrograms of hier archical cluster analysis resulting from the contents. In thes e areas, the growing areas are mainly located on slopes with. Natural RA grows for more than five years under. By contrast, cultured RA samples are cultivat ed on selected managed land and are. Natural RA suffers from drought, cold, nutrient deficiency , and other. Und er st re ss , the mo rph olo gy , phy sio lo gi cal an d bio che mi ca l pro pe rt ies , os mo tic ad jus tme nt,.

Cytoplasmic free sugars and alditols components are the. Therefore, natural. RA contains more free sugars than cultured RA becaus e of t he environmental influence. In addition, cultured RA has a better li ving environm ent and adequate nutrition during growth than. Thu s, carbo hyd rates prod uced by photos ynthe sis are use d fo r pl ant grow th, such as for th e. Ho wev er , wi th ad verse cir cum sta nce s. V a rio us p olysac cha rides a nd g lyc ocon jugat es, includ ing gl ycop rotei ns, pept ido glycan , prot eog lyc ans ,.

I n ad dit ion , t hese ma crom olecul es with in pla nt. For exam ple , hydr oxy pro line-r ich. In the present study , the contents of polysaccharides and. The plant ce ll wall is a highly ordered structure composed of different polysaccharides, proteins, and. Polysaccharides constitute the main structural framework of the cell wall. Polysaccharides in plant cell walls include pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose, among which cellulose. As the first defense layer of the cell, the cell wall plays an.

Fo r ex amp le , a seri es of glyc osyl h ydr ola ses is activa ted du ring the. In sum mary , we spec ula te tha t na tura l RA is sub jected to mo re envi ron men tal stres ses than cultu red. RA, ther eby induc ing d iffe rent l eve ls of respo nse s i n c ell ula r an d mol ecu lar level s b y th eir ow n d efense.

The se res pon ses , inclu din g the form ati on of carb ohy dra te com poun ds with diff ere nt. RA s amples w ere o bta ine d from two spec ies of A. A ll plant m ate ria ls were i den tif ie d. Xue -Mei Qin, and the voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Modern. Detailed information on the. Table 8. List of RA plant materials. Cultivation Pattern. Harvesting T ime. Growth Y ear. Gs, Longxi County. Gs, Dangchang County. Sx, Daixian County. Sx, Y in gxian County. Sx, Y anggao County. Ssx, Y ulin. Sx, Hunyuan County.

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